NCDs are caused, to a massive extent, by four behavioural risk factors: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity and harmful use of alcohol Non communicable diseases are driven by seemingly unrelated causes such as rapid unplanned urbanization, globalization of unhealthy lifestyles and population ageing. Apparent causes such as raised blood pressure, increased blood glucose, elevated blood lipids and obesity may be representations of deep lying lifestyle habits
We will analyze various types of risks-factors which can be divided into three primary risk sets: modifiable behavioural risk factors, non-modifiable risk factors and metabolic risk factors, many of which are common for a number of diseases. Lifestyle diseases are ailments that are primarily based on the day to day habits of people. Habits that detract people from activity and push them towards a sedentary routine can cause a number of health issues that can lead to chronic non-communicable diseases that can have near life-threatening consequences. NCDs are chronic in nature and cannot be communicated from one person to another. They are a result of a combination of factors including genetics, physiology, environment and behaviours. The main types of NCDs are cardiovascular and chronic respiratory diseases in addition to cancer. NCDs such as cardiovascular usually give rise to circumstances that make it difficult for the patients to lead a normal life. Patients with chronic NCDs may not be able to take part in regular physical activity, go to the office or eat normally. By analyzing the risk factors, we will design the most effective exercise programme for you bearing in mind your daily commitments. A simple lack of physical activity has been claiming 1.6 million lives annually why be part of the statistic while we are here.
Non-modifiable risk factors:
Risk factors that cannot be controlled or modified by the application of an intervention can be called non-modifiable risk factors and include:
Metabolic risk factors:
Metabolic risk factors lead to four major changes in the metabolic systems that increase the possibility of NCDs:
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased blood glucose levels or hyperglycemia
- Increased levels of fat in the blood or hyperlipidemia
Increased blood pressure is the leading metabolic risk factor globally with 19% of the global deaths attributed to it, followed by obesity and hyperglycemia. Cardiovascular diseases are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and may include:
- Ischaemic heart disease
- Peripheral arterial disease
- Congenital heart disease
Other Risk Factors
High blood pressure, abnormal blood lipids, tobacco use, Physical inactivity, Obesity, Unhealthy diet (salt) Diabetes, heavy alcohol use
Diabetes is a metabolism disorder that affects the way the body used food for energy and physical growth. There are 4 types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2, Gestational, and Pre-Diabetes (Impaired,Glucose,Tolerance). Type 2 is the most common diabetes in the world and is caused by modifiable, behavioural risk factors.
Factors,Unhealthy diets ,Physical Inactivity ,Obesity or Overweight ,High Blood Pressure ,High Cholesterol ,Heavy alcohol use ,Psychological stress ,High consumption of sugar ,Low consumption of fiber advanced age, Family history/genetics, Race, Lung cancer, Smoking, Second hand smoke, Weight and physical activity
Chronic respiratory diseases
Some of the most under-diagnosed conditions, chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) are a potent cause of death globally with 90% of the deaths. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are the two main types of CRDs. Risk Factors-Cigarette smoke, dust and chemicals, environmental, tobacco smoke, air pollution Infections, genetics, age
CVDs are the face of lifestyle diseases and manifest in a number of ways, such as:- coronary heart disease and ischaemic heart disease, CHD is one of the most common types of heart problems faced today and is characterised by a reduction or blockage in the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This puts exaggerated strain on the heart, which can lead to:
- Angina – chest pain caused by lack of flow of blood to the heart
- Heart attacks – caused when the blood flow to the heart is suddenly but completely blocked
- Heart failure – the failure of the heart to pump blood properly to the rest of the body.
Cerebrovascular disease (strokes and TIAs): Cerebrovascular disease is the disease of blood vessels supplying blood to the brain. When the blood supply to the brain is cut off, a person suffers a stroke, which can be lethal. A transient ischaemic attack, popularly known as a mini-stroke, occurs when the blood supply to the brain is temporarily blocked. we use the acronym FAST to signify the symptoms of a stroke or TIA . which stands for:
- Face: Face drooping on one side is the most common visible symptom, followed by dropping of mouth or eye.
- Arms: Weakness of numbness in one or both arms doesn’t allow a person to raise both of his or her hands up and hold them there.
- Speech: Slurred or garbled speech in some cases, and in other cases: no speech.
- Time to call emergency help
Screening and Assessment for Exercise
Our effective fitness counselors listens carefully to our client’s needs and reasons for beginning an activity program. Our trainers play a pivotal role in assisting clients with an illness or disorder to understand their current health and fitness status, develop structured plan of achievable goals at the out-set of the program, and help the client to sustain a motivation level whenever it begins to fade. Knowing about our client’s past is crucial to understanding the client’s present needs and prospective goals.
Physical Activity Programming
- What do you want from the program?
- What has prevented you from doing this before?
- What is your plan of action?
By engaging in this conversation, we will identify areas of unrealistic expectations, improve our client’s sense of self-direction, and gain important information about the focus of education, knowledge and/or skills for your client. Most importantly, fitness counseling can help to establish, focus on, and achieve realistic goals for clients with specific illnesses or challenges
Pre-exercise Session Assessment
To ensure safe conduct of each exercise session, it is imperative that we administer a brief pre-exercise session assessment. We take appropriate vital signs and obtain information on symptoms. Additionally, we ask our client if there is any changes in their symptoms or medications since their last exercise session. We review our client’s exercise program and be aware of any signs indicating that our client may be having problems with the exercise program. After we have obtained the necessary information, we modify the exercise session to meet our client’s present status.
Physical Activity Programming
Our program design are based on client needs, desires, physical limitations and goals. A thorough understanding of the risks and benefits of exercise associated with our client’s condition will guide us in developing a safe and effective program. Matrix uses exercise progression gradually with an emphasis on increasing duration rather than intensity. Our client’s program are based on their needs and condition. Our framework for the program are based on the FITT acronym: F= frequency ; I= intensity; T= time of activity ;T= type or mode of activity. Once we have developed the exercise program, we make sure that all of our recommendations are in accordance with established guidelines and recommendations. We pay close attention to our client’s exercise response. The objective data (heart rate, blood pressure, distance completed, time spent exercising) are important; however, the subjective data also (RPE, leg pain, work intensity tolerance, shortness of breath, etc.) Remember it is our responsibility to stay current in the field of exercise science by conducting a regular review of professional scientific literature and applying the knowledge gained to our exercise programming methods.